Policies targeting agricultural value chains impact Tanzanian farmers, so it is important to understand how these policies affect producer incentives and price transmission along the value chain. This research focuses on maize and groundnut value chains, estimating Nominal Rates of Protection (NRPs) along the value chain and analyzing their implications for producers. The results for border NRPs and trade status imply an anti-trade bias in maize; imported maize faces an import tariff, while exported maize often faces taxes.
Despite global goals to decrease malnutrition, there remain many challenges in providing access to a nutritious diet for all. Food value chains for nutrition have been the focus of a number of reviews but evidence of their impacts remains limited. Using a systems perspective to look at markets and the role of the private sector in nutrition includes not only the complex relations between multiple actors and trade-offs between often competing objectives, but also the supporting environment in terms of infrastructure (e.g. roads, energy) and the guiding laws and social norms.
It is predicted that rising temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns will substantially impact food systems. Nutritious crops often require water-intensive growing techniques; hence production decisions and yields could be substantially affected by a changing climate. Value chain interventions can help overcome constraints in terms of inputs, storage and transportation that limit access to nutritious foods which may become more pronounced in the face of climate change.
In the past, discussions about food security have typically focused on thequantity of food that people eat rather than the quality. However, micronutrient deficiencies are becoming increasingly recognized as a serious threat to the health and economic development of low-income populations. As a result, nutrition is garnering more and more attention in the development community.
The second Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) challenges the world to achieve food security and improve nutrition by 2030 but food insecurity and micronutrient deficiencies remain stubbornly high and rates of overweight and obesity are rising throughout the world. To attain SDG 2, food systems must deliver more nutritious food to populations. For food systems to do so, value chains for micronutrient-rich foods must be improved, making such foods more available and affordable to consumers.