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Japan's participation in global value chains: splitting the IO table into production for export and domestic sale

This paper examines Japan's participation in global value chains (GVCs). To this end, we use plant-level data for Japan to split output in each industry in Japan's manufacturing sector into output for export or domestic sale and create an extended multi-country input-output table (MIOT). We then compute trade in value added (TiVA) indicators to examine the participation of Japanese manufacturing plants in GVCs. Our estimates suggest that Japan's forward participation in GVCs is lower than suggested by estimates computed from a traditional MIOT.

Heterogeneous incentives for innovation adoption: The price effect on segmented markets

t is now commonly accepted that poverty alleviation and the development of agricultural value chains in low income countries require farmers to innovate. However numerous constraints to innovation adoption have been identified. In the literature, the market structures on which producers sell their output have received remarkably little attention. In this article, I argue that these can impact a producer's choices with respect to the level of effort invested in changing agricultural practices.

Mapping the Philippines in the Offshoring Services Global Value Chain

This paper aims to analyse the current position and potential for upgrading of the Philippines in the global value chain of information technology offshoring services. With its rapid growth in the last decade, the Philippines is characterized as strong in voice and is expanding in the non-voice and more complex services sectors.

Incomplete contracts and allocation of residual claim along the global value chains: evidence from Japan

The seminal work by Antras and Chor in 2013 predicted that, under incomplete-contracting environments, the optimal allocation of residual claim for firms participating in global production depends on the relative position at which the supplier enters the sequential production and on the demand elasticity faced by the final-good producer. Using data of Japanese value-added exports, this study empirically verifies this theoretical prediction through supportive evidence.

The Role of Trade Policies in Building Regional Value Chains - Some Preliminary Evidence From Africa

Regional value chains (RVCs) are considered as an important step towards greater integration into global value chains (GVCs), but African countries trade very little value added with each other. Based on the UNCTAD-Eora GVC database, this paper estimates a panel model from 2006 to 2012 for 37 African countries and sheds light on the role of trade costs in building RVCs in Africa. First evidence is provided for a significantly negative effect on foreign value added of charged tariffs on capital goods and higher time to trade.

Coffee Value Chains on the Move: Evidence from Ethiopia
International coffee markets are changing quickly due to market liberalization, increasingly stringent quality and safety standards, and the development of specialty coffee markets.  Coffee production takes place primarily in developing countries, and such changes could have significant impacts on smallholder coffee producers. In Africa south of the Sahara, Ethiopia represents the largest coffee market actor, and the country’s coffee sector has seen improved productivity and increased prices in recent years. However, according to a recent study[1] from IFPRI, the Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), and Bonn University, a wide range of challenges have slowed this transformation for smallholder farmers, who make up 95 percent of coffee producers in the country.
Eastern and southern Africa agriculture value chain learning hub:Market needs study

In an effort to better understand agriculture value chains market needs in relation to CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM) learning hubs, the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) conducted a market needs study to assess the current situation and find any possible common ground between the East and southern Africa (ESA) PIM learning hub and the needs and expectations of key actors in the market.

Identification of production challenges and benefits using value chain mapping of egg food systems in Nairobi, Kenya

Commercial layer and indigenous chicken farming in Nairobi and associated activities in the egg value chains are a source of livelihood for urban families. A value chain mapping framework was used to describe types of inputs and outputs from chicken farms, challenges faced by producers and their disease control strategies. Commercial layer farms were defined as farms keeping exotic breeds of chicken, whereas indigenous chicken farms kept different cross breeds of indigenous chicken.

Formal versus informal: Efficiency, inclusiveness and financing of dairy value chains in Indian Punjab
This paper highlights that 1) Both formal and informal value chains coexist in the dairy sector of Indian Punjab, but formal value chains are prominent, 2) Resource-rich farmers partner with formal value chains; and smallholders are more dependent on informal chains, 3) Farmers in the cooperative value chains earn more profit per unit of output, and 4) Chain-based financing is limited to informal value chains., and the external financing by commercial banks or other such institutions is limited and biased towards resource-rich farmers.
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