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Global value chains and policy practice: The making of linkages in the Ivorian cashew industry

The global value chain framework has gained increasing prominence as a policy tool for resource-based industrialization. Focusing on synergies between the commodity-producing and related manufacturing and service sectors, value chain interventions assume that buyer-supplier linkages facilitate the upgrading of local industries. This study investigates these synergistic assumptions in the context of the Ivorian cashew industry.

Rapid transformation of food systems in developing regions: Highlighting the role of agricultural research & innovations

Developing regions' food system has transformed rapidly in the past several decades. The food system is the dendritic cluster of R&D value chains, and the value chains linking input suppliers to farmers, and farmers upstream to wholesalers and processors midstream, to retailers then consumers downstream. We analyze the transformation in terms of these value chains' structure and conduct, and the effects of changes in those on its performance in terms of impacts on consumers and farmers, as well as the efficiency of and waste in the overall chain.

Key issues in regional growth and integration in Southern Africa

The decade to 2015 saw rapid growth in trade between Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries. Much of this growth reflected South African exports to its neighbours of diversified manufactured goods to meet growing urban consumption and to supply inputs to mining and infrastructure. While most SADC countries, aside from South Africa, grew quite rapidly over this period, their exports remained oriented to a narrow range of minerals and agricultural commodities destined to go outside the region.

Measuring distortions to agricultural incentives for value chain analysis: Evidence from Indian value chains

We extend the nominal rate of protection (NRP) methodology to a value chain framework. We develop our methodology for three types of value chains: a new value chain created by policy, a value chain in which a by‐product is created in the processing of a commodity, and a value chain in which processing of a commodity generates new product(s). We consider two cases of value chains: when the commodity is tradable and when it is non‐tradable.

Impact of traditional versus modern dairy value chains on food security: Evidence from India’s dairy sector

The Indian government has made significant efforts to promote dairy cooperatives to link the milk producers with consumers. Despite this, milk marketing is still dominated by traditional outlets. This paper examines the impact of modern dairy value chains on food security indicators such as net returns from dairying and consumption expenditures.

Policy-induced price distortions along the small ruminant value chains in Ethiopia

 

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify sources and quantifying distortions to agricultural incentives to produce along the small ruminant value chains in Ethiopia.

Design/methodology/approach

National and district level average nominal rate of protection (NRPs) were computed for a five-year period (2010–2015). The authors developed four scenarios based on combinations of the different data generation processes employed in relation to each of the key variables.

Food systems for sustainable development: Proposals for a profound four-part transformation

Evidence shows the importance of food systems for sustainable development: they are at the nexus that links food security, nutrition, and human health, the viability of ecosystems, climate change, and social justice. However, agricultural policies tend to focus on food supply, and sometimes, on mechanisms to address negative externalities. We propose an alternative. Our starting point is that agriculture and food systems’ policies should be aligned to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

The impact of smallholder farmers’ participation in avocado export markets on the labor market, farm yields, sales prices, and incomes in Kenya

Smallholder producers in sub-Saharan Africa are often unable integrate into markets and access high-value opportunities by effectively participating in global chains for high-value fresh produce. Using data from a survey of large avocado farmers in Kenya, this study examines the determinants and impacts of smallholder-producer participation in avocado export markets on labor inputs, farm yields, sales prices, and incomes, using a switching regression framework to control for selection effects.

Services in Thailand and Participation in Global Value Chains

This paper examines the services sector in Thailand with a focus on regional and global value chains, highlighting the case of the logistics sector. Overall, the results indicate that in Thailand, services exhibit relatively low labour productivity as compared to other sectors. The logistics sector, however, is well integrated into global value chains with links to prominent multinational firms. The findings also suggest that many opportunities lie ahead for Thai firms to move up regional and global value chains.

Japan's participation in global value chains: splitting the IO table into production for export and domestic sale

This paper examines Japan's participation in global value chains (GVCs). To this end, we use plant-level data for Japan to split output in each industry in Japan's manufacturing sector into output for export or domestic sale and create an extended multi-country input-output table (MIOT). We then compute trade in value added (TiVA) indicators to examine the participation of Japanese manufacturing plants in GVCs. Our estimates suggest that Japan's forward participation in GVCs is lower than suggested by estimates computed from a traditional MIOT.

Heterogeneous incentives for innovation adoption: The price effect on segmented markets

t is now commonly accepted that poverty alleviation and the development of agricultural value chains in low income countries require farmers to innovate. However numerous constraints to innovation adoption have been identified. In the literature, the market structures on which producers sell their output have received remarkably little attention. In this article, I argue that these can impact a producer's choices with respect to the level of effort invested in changing agricultural practices.

Mapping the Philippines in the Offshoring Services Global Value Chain

This paper aims to analyse the current position and potential for upgrading of the Philippines in the global value chain of information technology offshoring services. With its rapid growth in the last decade, the Philippines is characterized as strong in voice and is expanding in the non-voice and more complex services sectors.

Incomplete contracts and allocation of residual claim along the global value chains: evidence from Japan

The seminal work by Antras and Chor in 2013 predicted that, under incomplete-contracting environments, the optimal allocation of residual claim for firms participating in global production depends on the relative position at which the supplier enters the sequential production and on the demand elasticity faced by the final-good producer. Using data of Japanese value-added exports, this study empirically verifies this theoretical prediction through supportive evidence.

The Role of Trade Policies in Building Regional Value Chains - Some Preliminary Evidence From Africa

Regional value chains (RVCs) are considered as an important step towards greater integration into global value chains (GVCs), but African countries trade very little value added with each other. Based on the UNCTAD-Eora GVC database, this paper estimates a panel model from 2006 to 2012 for 37 African countries and sheds light on the role of trade costs in building RVCs in Africa. First evidence is provided for a significantly negative effect on foreign value added of charged tariffs on capital goods and higher time to trade.

Coffee Value Chains on the Move: Evidence from Ethiopia
International coffee markets are changing quickly due to market liberalization, increasingly stringent quality and safety standards, and the development of specialty coffee markets.  Coffee production takes place primarily in developing countries, and such changes could have significant impacts on smallholder coffee producers. In Africa south of the Sahara, Ethiopia represents the largest coffee market actor, and the country’s coffee sector has seen improved productivity and increased prices in recent years. However, according to a recent study[1] from IFPRI, the Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), and Bonn University, a wide range of challenges have slowed this transformation for smallholder farmers, who make up 95 percent of coffee producers in the country.
Identification of production challenges and benefits using value chain mapping of egg food systems in Nairobi, Kenya

Commercial layer and indigenous chicken farming in Nairobi and associated activities in the egg value chains are a source of livelihood for urban families. A value chain mapping framework was used to describe types of inputs and outputs from chicken farms, challenges faced by producers and their disease control strategies. Commercial layer farms were defined as farms keeping exotic breeds of chicken, whereas indigenous chicken farms kept different cross breeds of indigenous chicken.

Formal versus informal: Efficiency, inclusiveness and financing of dairy value chains in Indian Punjab
This paper highlights that 1) Both formal and informal value chains coexist in the dairy sector of Indian Punjab, but formal value chains are prominent, 2) Resource-rich farmers partner with formal value chains; and smallholders are more dependent on informal chains, 3) Farmers in the cooperative value chains earn more profit per unit of output, and 4) Chain-based financing is limited to informal value chains., and the external financing by commercial banks or other such institutions is limited and biased towards resource-rich farmers.
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